Chocolate Terminology

Lux Artisan Chocolates

Table of Contents

Chocolate
Milk Chocolate
Dark Chocolate
Caramel
Ganache
Cocoa nib
Feuilletine
Marzipan
Tempering
Toffee
Truffles
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Chocolate

Chocolate is made from cacao beans, the fruit of the tropical Theobroma Cacao tree. The beans are usually fermented, dried, roasted, and ground up to produce a liquid called cocoa liquor. This liquid is then separated into cocoa butter and cocoa powder. Cocoa butter and cocoa powder are combined along with other ingredients to produce chocolate. The ratio of butter to powder along with the additional ingredients is what determines the type of chocolate, dark, milk, or white.

Milk Chocolate

Cocoa butter and cocoa powder are combined with either condensed milk or dry powdered milk to produce Milk Chocolate. Usually sweeter than dark chocolate, Milk Chocolate is often used to make candy bars.

Dark Chocolate

Dark chocolate is chocolate without the milk products. It usually has a stronger chocolate taste but without the milk products it can be dry, sometimes even chalky and is often more bitter than milk chocolate.

Caramel

Caramel is made by cooking sugar or a sugar syrup with butter and other ingredients to control its taste. Cooked at a high temperature the resulting caramel will be firm and golden, lower temperatures produce a softer, more chewy caramel.

Ganache

Pronounced: guh-NAWSH. Ganache is a sweet mixture of chocolate and cream. It is especially usefull as a filling or frosting. The texture depends on the ratio of cream to chocolate: more cream produces a soft ganache that is almost liquid, perfect for filling molded chocolates. More chocolate than cream produces a firm ganache that can be formed into balls and powdered to create truffles.

Cocoa nib

Cocoa nib is a small piece of a cacao bean that has been roasted, dried, dehusked, and degermed.

Feuilletine

Pronounced: foo-ye-teen loosely derived from the French "feuille" meaning leaves. Feuilletine has a delicate, light, cookie crunch that tastes like crushed up sugar cone but very thin and light.

Marzipan

Marzipan is a confection consisting primarily of sugar or honey and almond meal, sometimes augmented with almond oil or extract. It is used as a candy filling, and is a common ingredient in many European pastries and cakes. Because it has a smooth, supple texture, marzipan is also used to shape and mold candy figures.

Tempering

Tempering refers to a process of heating and cooling chocolate to prepare it for dipping and enrobing. The tempering process ensures that the cocoa butter in chocolate hardens in a uniform crystal structure. Chocolate that is tempered has a smooth texture, a glossy shine and a pleasant “snap” when bitten or broken. Chocolate that is not tempered might be cloudy, gray, lumpy, and sticky at room temperature. Tempering chocolate can be accomplished at home with a chocolate or instant-read thermometer and a double-boiler.

Toffee

Toffee is a candy formed by boiling a sugar syrup to a high temperature, usually soft-crack or hard-crack stage. Toffee usually has a hard, slightly chewy texture and a rich taste that is gained by adding butter to the sugar and water in the sugar syrup. Other common additions to toffee are roasted, chopped nuts and chocolate.

Truffles

A chocolate truffle is a type of chocolate confectionery, traditionally made with a chocolate ganache centre coated in chocolate, icing sugar, cocoa powder or chopped toasted nuts (typically hazelnuts, almonds or coconut), usually in a spherical, conical, or curved shape. Other fillings may replace the ganache: cream, melted chocolate, caramel, nuts, almonds, berries, or other assorted sweet fruits, nougat, fudge, or toffee, mint, chocolate chips, marshmallow, and, popularly, liqueur.

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